Wednesday, September 7, 2016

Retro Review: Grant Morrison's Batman Run, Ten Years Later

In September 2006, Grant Morrison began a stint as writer of the Batman title with issue #655. His more-or-less unbroken tenure jumped from one title to another, ending seven years later with Batman, Inc. (vol 2) #13, after a total of 75 issues across four titles, plus a handful of scenes in three other titles. Morrison portrayed three different heroes (and briefly, a fourth) as Batman, not counting a number of villains and proteges who posed as Batman or variants of Batman. In terms of the stature of the writer, the character, and the number of issues, it's a run that has been matched rarely if ever in DC's history. Now its beginning is a full decade in the past and its ending went on sale three years ago.

According to Morrison, he originally pitched a run 15 issues in length, and did not foresee that his tenure would end up five times that length. The entire body of work breaks down into three major stories averaging about two years each, augmented by a six-issue miniseries and then a few special features here and there. Even the first of those three major stories, though, ran past its planned length of 15 issues, to at least 23 by the most conservative count, before it looped back to include four more issues of Batman in related Final Crisis crossovers and a gem of an anniversary issue in Batman #700 that was largely separate plotwise from Morrison's other Batman work.

The stories making up the bulk of the run were:

• The Black Glove's attempt to destroy Batman, Batman #655-681.
• The battle between Batman (Dick Grayson) and El Penitente in Batman and Robin with the Joker playing his own game against both sides.
• Bruce Wayne's odyssey through time in Return of Bruce Wayne, trying to escape the doom planned for him by Darkseid.
• The effort by Levitathan to destroy Gotham and get final revenge against Batman, as chronicled in Batman,Inc.

The three longest arcs have certain distinctive characteristics that make them alike: Each lasted about twenty issues and told the tale of one master criminal plot headed by a single master villain who was, in each case, unknown to the reader until deep into the story. Those master villains worked through intermediaries, who themselves made formidable foes in their own right, challenging Batman – the various Batmen ­– to a respectable degree before a final round in which Batman squared off against the ultimate evil force in the story.

This mold was established in the first of those three, with the Black Glove's master plan revealing its first subtle – and at the time, inscrutable – clues in Morrison's very first issue, with Dr. Simon Hurt being revealed only very gradually, as a pair of hands holding binoculars, then a voice without a face, then as a figure in uncertain memories, never appearing on-panel in the present with Batman until the final pages of the second-to-last issue of Batman, R.I.P. The patience with which Morrison developed his story and its signature villain is nearly unmatched anywhere in the history of the medium of superhero comics. The lingering mystery, "Who is the Black Glove?", propelled Morrison's story to a high degree of notoriety, enthralling many fans while the plot's ambiguity and psychedelic weirdness frustrated others.

That first long arc in Batman also, eventually, turned out to follow themes that Morrison had shown in his earlier works. His very first Batman story, published only in a British publication as a text-only story, had Catwoman invade the Batcave. R.I.P. adapted the idea of a femme fatale inside Batman's sanctuary by having lover/enemy Jezebel Jet strike at Bruce Wayne inside the Batcave. Arkham Asylum showed Batman entering the titular institution to face a pack of enemies led by the Joker; this is what happened also in R.I.P. as the carefully-orchestrated "danse macabre" of Doctor Hurt. And Gothic, Morrison's classic four-parter from the early days of the Legends of the Dark Knight title, showed Batman in a supernatural story involving an ageless man who'd made a deal with the Devil. R.I.P. dropped clue after clue that Simon Hurt might be the universe's ultimate evil until Batman himself considered the possibility, a reveal that confused many readers, prompting Morrison to clarify that it was, indeed, "the story of how Batman cheats the Devil."

One of the great contributions of Morrison's run was in tying together so much of Batman's history, sending readers to the archives through whatever means they had, to investigate the Black Glove mystery by seeking clues in older – much older – stories. Morrison, like Steve Englehart before him, wrote a new Batman story that referred to considerably older ones, not from the past two or five years, but stories from decades earlier. Astonishingly, Morrison used a nameless character who appeared in one story in 1963 as the basis for his big, new villain. Using the freedom provided by Infinite Crisis' soft reboot, he made many minor changes to Batman's backstory, altering the 2005 status quo in order to bring back many miniscule facets of Batman's history such as Professor Nichols' time machine, Professor Milo's mind-altering gas weapons, and many long-forgotten Batman wannabes. As 2008 went by, readers were poring through the archives for the purpose of looking for Black Glove clues, but learning a heck of a lot about Batman lore as they went.

The first of Morrison's three long story arcs was what was originally planned as the entire run; when the next two came along, they copied that first once closely. The second, with replacement Batman Dick Grayson as the target of El Penitente, turned out to have the exact same villain, and many parallels to R.I.P., though turning, eventually, into a farce with Doctor Hurt slipping on a banana peel. The third, with a mysterious Leviathan who attracted an army of followers in Gotham, began according to a very similar script, though Talia was the villain this time, a "bad mother" instead of the first two stories' metaphorical bad fathers.

Given that the first run carried out Morrison's plan to fruition, at nearly double the originally-anticipated length, how does one perceive the rest of the run? As a corporation capitalizing on a business success by soliciting more of the same product from the same source? As a creative mind exploring fertile territory, going deeper and deeper? Both of these are true. While the Batman and Robin and Batman, Inc. stories were far less original in their architecture than the original run in Batman, they were finer in their craftsmanship. The Batman who began Morrison's run as overly gruff and self-admiring to the point of parody ("Hh. You didn't know I had a rocket.") turned into a finely-tuned and plausible optimum man by the work's end. The purple prose of the "Clown at Midnight" text-only Joker issue, the bombast of the adult Damian in issue #666, and the acknowledgement of Batman's silly past with the Club of Heroes and appearances by Bat-Mite struck many readers as overreach on Morrison's part; such judgments are subjective, but such fan criticism became rarer during the second and third long arcs. The Batman and Robin work is particularly noteworthy for Morrison's use of different pencillers, blending his scripts with each artist's visual style in virtuoso fashion. By the time Batman, Inc. began, Morrison was perceptibly more in command of his starring character and his world, with an Argentine tango of death, the daring of Batman's Matches Malone identity, flashbacks to Kathy Kane, and the passion of Damian Wayne all having just the right effect. Perhaps the second two long stories were refinements of the first, and perhaps one might imagine the three long arcs merged into one idealized version combining all of the three arcs' merits and none of their flaws, but we are richer for having the three, and to see Morrison's Batman evolve from the brooding loner who throws the Joker into a dumpster to the impassioned altruist who understands his destiny and is compelled to return from a brief retirement to start his war on Gotham's criminals anew.

Arguably the run's most prominent legacy will prove to be the character who was introduced (earlier inspirations withstanding) at the end of the first issue, Damian Wayne. It was a bold assertion by Morrison and his editors to add Batman's son to the mythos, one that was done with hesitation. Originally, Morrison planned for Damian's seeming death at the end of #658 to be an actual death, but the character returned, only to die near the end of the Batman, Inc. series, only to be brought back yet again by other creators.

Other innovations from throughout the run have been erased – at least for now – by DC's two new fresh starts, which make Bruce Wayne's revenge on Joe Chill a memorable scene that is no longer in continuity. The ambiguous clues suggesting that Doctor Hurt ordered the murders of Thomas and Martha Wayne seemed to build to a possible reveal that Morrison never got around to, and any possible intentions to that effect are now irrelevant insofar as 2016's continuity is concerned. However, the New 52 era of Batman, still largely in continuity, was led by Scott Snyder incorporating many Morrisonian inspirations, including an evil organization of wealthy Gothamites going far back into the past and led by central figures possessing unnatural longevity. Snyder's Court of Owls is sufficiently like the Black Glove to be perceived as an homage to Morrison's invention if not a needless reinvention of it.

In the era of trade paperbacks collecting the monthly titles, Morrison's run will be for sale indefinitely, and acquiring new readers at some rate far into the future. It is unlikely, though, that any of them will get the original experience had by readers who were picking up the new issues, particularly the middle portion of the run in 2007–2010. At that time, the monthlies had a tangled chronology – partly because Morrison's story involved flashbacks, hidden reveals, and time travel, and partly because different titles were simply giving us the story out of order. Sometimes this was jarring and seemed like an uncontrolled accident, as when the other Batman titles had R.I.P. Crossover on their cover and seemed to be telling stories set after Batman, R.I.P.'s conclusion, but whose writers, in retrospect, probably didn't know the ending of Morrison's story. In other cases, the big company-wide events linked up with Morrison's story out of sequence, most notably when his own Final Crisis involved Batman but was published concurrently with R.I.P. but was set after it. Thus, we were shown Bruce Wayne operating as Batman in a timeframe set shortly after R.I.P. even though R.I.P.'s climax as well as R.I.P. crossovers showed Dick Grayson and others mourning Bruce Wayne's seeming demise. Much later, a couple of extra Morrison issues showed us that Bruce simply swam out of the river and returned to the Batcave, making the climactic helicopter crash a mere inconvenience. Morrison and his editors tried to have their cake and eat it too, with big reveals that only seemed big at the time. This also played out with Simon Hurt's last stand as the Devil – or something that might as well be the Devil – but then getting a later backstory that made him something far less. And yet again, with Bruce Wayne "dying" in his confrontation with Darkseid, and the shock of Superman holding Batman's shriveled corpse proving to be, eventually, not at all what it seemed to be. To experience Morrison's run in the best way, those endings – the helicopter crash, Doctor Hurt's ambiguous reveal as the Devil, Superman holding the corpse – have to be endings for the reader, ones that last for a while before the plot reverses them in a do-over. For a new reader going through the story now, able to transition immediately from one ending to the next beginning, those retractions will seem weird or weak. And that's assuming that the reader is able to read the stories in the original print order, which scrambled the publication order with the logical and chronological order of the story, epitomized by Batman and Robin being published concurrently with Return of Bruce Wayne and dropping clues in a carefully-planned order even though their literal timelines were centuries apart. Simply put, it's almost impossible for any reader who picks up the trades to get the original experience, and that's a shame because the original experience was so fine.

This is another way in which the expansion of the run from 15 issues as planned to its eventual 75 came at a cost. If there was a carefully cultivated aspect of the first part of Morrison's work, beginning with the Joker killing "Batman" in front of disabled children and ending with the helicopter crash at the end of R.I.P., it was mystery – often achieved through ambiguity. In that first scene, with a fake Batman dying and shooting the Joker as his life fades, we were told that we couldn't believe our eyes, and that Morrison was going to feed us unreliable narration because, with the Joker speaking Morrison's thoughts, "I love messing with your head." Ambiguity and mystery remained at the forefront when we saw a pair of black-gloved hands holding the binoculars that watched Bruce kiss Jezebel, when Damian fought the Devil's servant in the (a? the?) future, when Bat-Mite seemed maybe to be real with a creepy insect-like alien behind him, and maybe to be imaginary, when Bruce spent a day with Honor Jackson, who turned out to have been imaginary or a ghost. We never got a clarification as to the reality of those things, with Bat-Mite humorously telling us, "Imagination is the 5th dimension" when he was asked point-blank for "one straight answer." But this made it clear that lingering, unresolved mystery was precisely Morrison's objective, with Doctor Hurt turning out to be "the hole in things, the piece that can never fit" who was simultaneously several things at once – possibly Bruce's father, possibly the Devil, and possibly neither of those. Morrison wanted us to know that R.I.P. was the story of how Batman cheats the Devil, but he also wanted us to know that we didn't truly know anything as a definite fact. This was what Bat-Mite's non-answer told us quite clearly about Morrison's story while it told us nothing about the facts. If Morrison's run had ended with Doctor Hurt on the helicopter, the mystery would have lingered at its fullest, and that was his original plan. The price of the run being tripled to quintupled in length is that the ending became a transition and not an ending at all, and the mystery became much less of a mystery with eventual expositional reveals, such as Simon Hurt being a pawn of Darkseid and the "bad" Batman who attacked Dick Grayson being a clone, being necessary to the plot but also a bit ugly as they defused Morrison's original objective of mystery.

What we got in exchange for the loss of mystery was, yes, more good storytelling, but also a deeper examination of the fictional ideal man, Bruce Wayne. Some of Morrison's finest work was when backstory was told with murky memories, such as the revenge on Joe Chill that Bruce imagined while experiencing cardiac arrest, and the synopsis of everything when Bruce was fighting death after expunging the Hyper-Adapter from his body. And what Morrison told us, in deeply and frankly psychoanalytical scenes, was that Batman was a man who lost his family and found life in his friends. He had a symbolic "bad father" in Simon Hurt, a bad wife (or co-parent) in Talia, two lost parents and a lost son – no family of any kind to count on. But he recompensed by finding four virtual sons, and the major climaxes in Morrison's run ended with each of the Robins saving Bruce's life once – Dick Grayson in R.I.P., Tim Drake in ROBW, Damian at the mid-point of Inc., and Jason Todd at the very end of the swordfight with Talia. And after Morrison admitted that it wouldn't make sense for the Justice League to fly in and save Bruce at the end of R.I.P., he ended ROBW in exactly that way, with Superman, Wonder Woman, and Green Lantern beating the Hyper-Adapter in a fistfight, and it felt right. Rather than being a cheap deus ex machina, Bruce Wayne having powerful friends upon whom he can rely was something touching and quite natural. Of course the ultimate man is going to have the ultimate friends, just as he is going to have imitators (the Club of Heroes) and need to summon greater resources around him (Batman, Inc.). Morrison doesn't skimp on giving Batman unparalleled stature in the DC Universe. After cheating the Devil, Batman gets out of bed to escape from Darkseid's death trap and wounds the dark god. Ultimately (in more senses than one), Batman goes to the end of time and becomes the central figure in the universe's final moments.

The central riddle in Morrison's Batman #700 was, "What can you beat but never defeat?" and the double answer was "Time and the Batman." The ten years that have passed since Morrison's run began passed quickly for me – your mileage may vary. DC has, remarkably, begun its world anew not once but twice since then with the monthly Batman title having restarted at #1 twice in the 2010s after having only one start in the seven decades before that. In the calendar of comic cosmology, I often think of the transition from the last JSA story to the first Barry Allen story as the time between epochs, but that was only five and a half years, and now since Morrison's long, contradictory, wonderful story began, we've had ten. The world has moved on and seems to be doing so at an accelerating pace. The Batman cinematic franchise that began the year before Morrison's run is also long in the past, with another actor having played the character twice while another actor plays him on TV. Batman's history is long and sprawling. These are the words with which Morrison ended his run: "Batman always comes back, bigger and better, shiny and new. Batman never dies. It never ends. It probably never will." There will always be a new Batman for readers and viewers to enjoy. It's possible that there was never a better time to be reading Batman than during Morrison's run.


  1. 10 years . . . wow. Excellent summing up (as always).

  2. Thanks, M! 10 years, indeed. It takes me back, personally, to the places where I read some of Morrison's Batman issues, places I never return to. How the time flies.

    1. Definitely a sense of place when thinking back about this run. I can remember quite clearly heading to the local shop with anticipation when everything was coinciding between Batman and Robin and The Return of Bruce Wayne. Exciting times.

      What's the best way to pin down the print order? As you said, something is lost when you don't read the run in the order in which the issues were released.

    2. Nevermind . . . I had forgotten about this:


  3. Rikdad -

    Thank you for the retrospective. Having read your blog posts during those remarkable seven years, many of them in which you tried to suss out the mystery aspects of the first two arcs, it's good to see you look at Morrison's run from the 10,000-foot view.

    Taken as a whole, that work provided "more Batman" than we're ever likely to see in one run. Heck, that's true just in the two-parter during Final Crisis (and right after RIP) that explored Batman's life in pitch-perfect fashion. And it's similarly true in the Argentina chapter of Batman Inc. Vol. 1, when pages are devoted to the original Batwoman's role in Bruce's life. And then you consider that the former story was really about Batman fighting off Darkseid's minions attempts to create an army of Batmen, and that the latter was about the Falklands War, webs of spy organizations and one of the most confounding villains Batman ever faced (Dr. Dedalus). And then you recall all the guest stars and side characters in such stories, and the pitch-perfect humor in the midst of ongoing crisis and calamity. And finally you realize these were just a handful of the 75 issues, and it hits you how rich, deep and powerful the story/stories were.

    And then you wish you could go back 10 years and start all over again.

    Thank you, Rikdad.

    1. MWTE, I'm glad you mentioned the two-parter, Last Rites, which definitely exemplified much that was right about Morrison's run. Occupying a weird niche in the narration – it was not clear until the last page of the first issue what was going on, but it was a beautiful montage of key moments in Batman's history, including a panel reprising Detective #27. And, the Argentine chapter contained possibly the finest writing in the whole run.

      The irony of wishing that we could go back and start it over is how piquant our state of ignorance was and how badly we craved to know more. I remember one poster saying wisely what we probably all knew, that the month or so before RIP ended was the best it would ever be, and that no possible reveal could live up to the anticipation. There was not just one mystery but many: Who was the Black Glove? Was Batman really going to lose? Was he going to die? Who was the Batman in Final Crisis? Who were the Batman and Robin on the first page of RIP?

      One poster dubbed shadowofthebird made a comment that I adored, that the final issue of RIP should be all prose, page after page of typed text, with one page being a long speech from Batman to Doctor Hurt and the next page a long speech in reply, with no art except little renditions of their heads as they spent the issue arguing, bragging, and rebutting one another. Morrison created such a perfect setup with so many ways to take it from there, but nobody could have guessed the scene with the monk and the poisoned cup (a scenario out of "Confessions of a Dangerous Mind") or Lane flying the helicopter. And in the rush of all that happened, we can look back at the solicit for that issue, that promised "An ending that you'll never see coming" and still wonder what that meant – the helicopter crash, the Wayne murder, the new Batman and Robin busting in on Le Bossu, or perhaps none of the above.

      I have yet to do a full 75-issue re-read of the whole run… but it may be time for that.

  4. I too got to ride along with your rikdad blog as co pilot. I hadnt bought a comic since the marvel onslaught thing and never heard of Grant Morrison. Those years were Amazing. I can say I've read through the entire run twice a year at least since it ended . And that I was almost as equally excited to read your blog as I was to read each new issue. Thank you man. I was so happy to have remembered what your name was again earlier this year and see you still going . Time , the Batman and rikdad blog

    1. Unknown, I'm glad you enjoyed the run as much as I did, and thanks for your comments. As it played out, all of my RIP discussion during the original run was on the DC Message Boards; I started the blog just a few months later when the mods on the DCMB were erasing threads and blocking accounts and I didn't want all my posts to disappear without a trace. Those years were amazing; thanks for recalling them with me/us.

  5. rikdad, as awesome an analysis, as it was back then. i remember jumping in and catching up because i read the news on ign about batman rip (and blackest night) and it caught my attention immediately.

    i too say thanks for bringing these memories back to life,


  6. Thank you for writing all this Rikdad. Grant Morrison's Batman run turned into what's probably my favorite of all time. I love the run and have reread the entire thing many times, always chasing after and trying to capture that feeling I had when I first read it (as it was coming out). You really hit the nail on the head when you say that future audiences reading the tpb's won't have anywhere near the same experience we all had getting to sit with plot points for months at a time and speculate on them.
    I was obsessed with pouring over Batman lore trying to look for clues, just like you describe, and your blog was (and continues to be) the premier destination to get my analysis fix.
    Over the past year my girlfriend has been making her way through my collection of DC Comics TPB's in order of continuity. It's been interesting seeing her reactions to decades worth of storyline developments over the course of a single year. She is soon approaching the beginning of Morrison's run and I am excited for her to experience it, but like you said before, it will likely be a VERY different experience. I look forward to pointing her in the direction of your blog archives, so she can see the fun we all had as fans, and so she can appreciate your thoughtful analyses.
    Thanks again, this run on Batman will never leave me and I am always glad it had a similar effect on others.

    1. Jonny, thanks. I just re-read the second "season", B&R and ROBW, and am now starting the third. So many fine issues. I'm sure it will be interesting to see the Morrison run through your girlfriend's fresh set of perspectives.

      One thing that makes it virtually impossible for a new reader to experience this the way we first-time readers did at the time is that they will have some sense that they should read the whole run, which is a giveaway that it tells one tight story, instead of lots of separate stories with a given tone, which is more typical of a writer's run on a superhero title. Morrison's "Batman" was full of little odd things that stuck out and didn't make sense at the time, like "ZUR EN ARRH" graffiti in the first issue, and unexplained appearances of Bat-Mite, and Batman's weird monologue about an absolute enemy closing in on him, that gradually built to a sense that something huge was happening.

      Thanks for being along for the ride and, as Batman says, "It never ends."

  7. Greetings Rikdad,
    We've crossed paths on the DC message boards when they were a grand place to be (oh I so enjoyed all the fun discussions over there ..I used to go by Bat-Spock!). I have always enjoyed reading your posts and came to see if you had posted anything close to Batman Day and boy was I delightfully surprised :) Yes, I recall getting all those titles as they came out, as well as satellite stories like Red Robin's first 12 issues, Bruce Wayne:The Road Home etc, and for me, personally, The Return of Bruce Wayne with its textured foray into mythmaking and "healing' the Batman, will always be the best part of Morrison's run. Of course, I love all of it...from quirky ideas such as Bruce's "backup human operating system", to the Doctor Who style adventures at Vanishing Point , with Bruce using his memories to sabotage the Evil Factory in Last Rites, and having his memories wiped to beat the hyper-adapter & Darkseid in RoBW, man...I doubt anyone is going to top that level of storytelling. Ten years, graduate school and three countries later, I find myself carrying Morrison's books with me wherever I go - the definitive Batman run in recent history, if not ever.

    I have not quite enjoyed Batman comicbooks since Morrison left the title.
    Incidentally, have you seen Person of Interest? If you have not, methinks you'd love it almost immediately...the Nolan connection shines through, so to speak and the entire 5-season narrative homages The Dark Knight trilogy (planning to write a post on that at some point!).
    Anyway, t'is a shame we do not have the message boards anymore. Take care!!

  8. This makes me realize how my daughter is almost 10, 9 1/2 really, I started reading Batman a few months after Morrison took over and was caught up in it, also Geoff's run on GL started near that same time, but the mystery of the whole story was one that will be hard if not impossible to reproduce in a monthly Batman or any other character main book. With almost all of the solid writers doing more Image books which I understand, we may not ever see those huge classic runs again. Also I believe the final panel is bringing it right back to the beginning of building a better batmobile.

  9. 3rd Party,

    It's great to see you show up… the community from the message boards back in the day… it was a bit unruly at times, but it gathered together people who had a good time sharing reactions to that stuff, and as amazing as it is to have that a decade in the past, it's great to have you come visit here.

    I haven't seen Person of Interest. My TV viewing gets parceled out pretty sparingly, but I'll definitely look into it.

  10. John, it is amazing how these years on the titles correspond to so much happening in our lives. I recently took stock of the timeline of my original stint as a comic reader, when I was about the age of your daughter and younger than that. Just a few years back then in my formative days made these characters important in a way that'll never fade, and that took place in much less time (and much less weight of ideas) than we saw in Morrison's run.

    The Ouroboros symbol – the snake devouring its own tail – worked in many ways throughout the run and was the absolute final element in Morrison's Batman work as a tiny image in the lower right corner of the last panel. And he certainly meant by that to say that Batman would be immediately relaunched again (already had been, given the overlapping timelines) under new writers' control.

  11. Rikdad please it's driving me crazy and I can't search through all the old posts ( seriously write a book , I'm sure grant wouldn't mind ) but what is the philosopher /idea behind the branch tree creatures of Return again ? Thank you again

  12. I'm sure you know the one or two words that will immediately launch me into what I'm looking for

  13. Bones,

    Sorry for the long delay in responding. The Bush Robots are an idea by Hans Moravec. Someone I'm one degree of separation from, by the way.

    I hope you see this reply despite the substantial delay.

  14. Thank you for this blog over the years. I first read it I believe in 2010. I had already read Batman and Son as well as R.I.P. I had a huge gap in between the storylines however because I left to teach English in South Korea for 15 months, returning in February of 2010 (starting in November 2008). It was at this time that I discovered you blog and found it extremely helpful to understand what I was reading. I studied English Literature in college, graduating with a B.A. in 2007 but never would have developed the insight about the stories I was reading without your criticism and analysis. I continued reading the story arcs through Final Crisis, and both Batman Inc. runs. I also am a huge fan of Mad Men and enjoyed your analysis of that series as well. Thank you again! I can't really believe it has been over ten years since this storyline started and so many since the iconic conclusion in Batman Inc. #13. I remember almost giddily looking for your reaction to denouement/climax, with Talia and the confrontation between her and Bruce in the Batcave after Damian's death. The story that Morrison wrote was truly iconic, but your analysis Rikdad, was EPIC. Kudos to you. I have long been curious, did you study some analytical form of criticism at a university somewhere, or are you just naturally gifted?

  15. Hicksbran,

    You're welcome and thank you! I'm glad that you got to enjoy this great big story on both sides of the interruption.

    My experience of the analysis of literature is primarily that of a non-major who took a few literature courses in college and has enjoyed analyzing what I read ever since. A couple of memories stand out, now a decade in the past, where I realized that Morrison's story was more than it initially seemed, and that I should give it my all in trying to make sense of it. Certainly the scene in Arkham where Batman spoke as the Joker laid out cards played a major role in convincing me that the story had depths worth exploring. In retrospect, though, that scene itself was probably not so deep as it seemed to hint. The rest of the story was, in many ways, and I'm glad and thankful that you got to be part of the ride!